Publish date 2024-02-02
Reading time Lästid: 8 min

Managing Global Mobility in the Nordics

The Nordic regions interconnected economies and open labor markets with extensive cross-border employment brings distinct challenges in areas like employee tax, social security, pension, employer reporting obligations, and payroll management. However, the Nordic tax treaty and bi-lateral agreements between Sweden and other Nordic countries also allow for planning opportunities and ways to simplify the compliance process for both employers and employees. In this article we highlight some of the challenges and opportunities of cross-border employment arrangements in the Nordics.

Understanding and navigating taxation systems

One of the foremost challenges for employers in the Nordic region lies in understanding and navigating the intricate taxation systems across borders. Each country maintains its tax regulations, often creating complexities in determining where and how to appropriately pay taxes for employees working across borders. Varied tax rates, deductions, and allowances further adds to the challenge. 

Navigating social security systems presents another layer of complexity. Understanding and adhering to different social security obligations and contributions in each Nordic country demands careful attention from employers to ensure compliance and avoid penalties. The level of employer contributions also differs substantially between the jurisdictions. 

Sweden allows for tax exemption of employment income legitimately taxed in the country of employment

Albeit tax rules are complex, the Nordic double taxation agreement offers simpler, and often more tax efficient ways, to mitigate double taxation than can be found in most tax treaties Sweden has entered with other countries. For people living in Sweden and working cross-border in the Nordic countries, Sweden allows for tax exemption of employment income legitimately taxed in the country of employment, as opposed to the traditional method where foreign taxes are credited from the Swedish taxes. In many cases, this provides a lower overall tax for multi-state employees, and the cash flow effects of being taxed in two countries simultaneously can be more easily managed than in cross-border situations outside the Nordics.  

Due to the substantial movement of workers in the Oresund region, Sweden and Denmark have also entered into separate agreements to simplify rules regarding tax and social security for people living in one of the countries and working in the other.  

Don't miss our webinar on cross-border
tax insights in the Nordics!


Employer reporting obligations require efficient systems and processes

Compliance with employer reporting obligations becomes crucial when managing cross-border workforces. Employers must accurately report employee income, taxes withheld, and social security contributions to respective authorities in each country. This requires efficient systems and processes to gather, consolidate, and submit this information compliantly and on time. 

Managing payroll across borders adds to the complexity of cross-border work. Calculating and disbursing salaries while factoring in varying tax rates, social security, and currency conversions demands precision. Errors in payroll management not only impact employee satisfaction but also pose reputational and financial risks for employers. 

Despite this challenge, there are simpler ways to manage the employer reporting obligations in the Nordics. Even if there may be a formal employer reporting obligation in more than one country, the Nordic TREKK agreement can facilitate an automatic transfer of taxes between the relevant tax authorities, decreasing the administrative burden for employers and employees alike. 

Managing occupational pension

While social security pension is quite harmonized, it can be the opposite with occupational pension. Above setting up correct pension contribution and insurance coverage, there are tax issues for the employer as well as for the employee. In certain situations, there are compulsory pension set-ups regulated by law or by collective bargaining agreements that might differ from employment contracts. Certain combinations of pension systems and tax residency can be very expensive for the employer and/or very unfavorable for the employee. 
By using the most favorable combinations of form of employment and pension set-up, there is a great opportunity for significant cost reductions. By adopting a well thought out expatriate policy the risk of costly mistakes is reduced to a minimum. In some cases, a cash allowance or alternative pension plans for tax equalized employees can decrease or resolve unfavorable and expensive tax implications.  

Addressing challenges to ensure compliance 

To address these challenges effectively, employers operating in the Nordic region must adopt a proactive approach: 

  • Seek Professional Guidance: Engage tax consultants, legal advisors, or HR experts well-versed in Nordic regulations to navigate the complexities of cross-border employment effectively. 
  • Invest in Robust Systems: Implement efficient payroll and HR systems capable of handling multi-jurisdictional payroll, tax calculations, and compliance reporting seamlessly. 
  • Keep Updated on Regulatory Changes: The regulatory landscape across the Nordic countries may undergo frequent revisions. Employers need to stay updated and adapt their practices accordingly to remain compliant. 
  • Create Awareness: Regularly educate HR and finance teams about cross-border employment regulations and compliance obligations to mitigate errors. 

Need professional guidance? We can help!

Operating in the Nordics offers tremendous opportunities for businesses to access a diverse talent pool. However, the complexities surrounding employee tax, social security, employer reporting obligations, and payroll management require meticulous attention. By understanding these challenges, employers can navigate cross-border work more effectively, ensuring compliance and fostering successful operations in the region. 

If you need professional guidance, Aspia and Skeppsbron Skatt offer advice and compliance to help you manage your workforce moving to - or from Sweden. Aspia can also provide payroll services in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland and offer advice throughout the Nordic region.  

Sign up for our webinar on the Cross-border tax and payroll landscape in the Nordics!

During our upcoming webinar “Nordic Employment – Tax and Payroll Insights” on the 13th of March, our own experts Simon Blasiusson, Expatriate Payroll Manager (Aspia), Agnes Fröjd Almefjord, Tax Consultant (Skeppsbron Skatt) and Sten Levin, Occupational Pension Advisor (Skeppsbron Skatt), will explore the latest trends, best practices, and insights shaping the employment tax and payroll landscape in the Nordic region for employers with cross-border workers to- and from Sweden. They will also be joined by guest speakers from Taxand partner firms in Norway, Denmark and Finland.

Författare av detta blogginlägg:
Simon Blasiusson
Simon Blasiusson är Manager vid Expatriate Payroll på Aspia och utgår från Malmö.


Fröjd Almefjord

Agnes Fröjd Almefjord är Tax Consultant vid Skeppsbron Skatt som är en del av Aspia.

Kontakta mig!



Sten Levin är Occupational Pension Advisor vid Skeppsbron Skatt som är en del av Aspia.

Kontakta mig!